ARCHIVED WEBSITEThis site was archived on Aug. 3, 2021. The two-state solution is no longer the most popular solution among the jurisdictions involved. A reconsideration of the topic is possible in the future.
The Government of the State of Israel and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (hereinafter referred to as “the Parties”),
Expressing their desire to further develop the cooperation in environmental protection and nature conservation in the spirit of Article 18 and Annex IV of the Treaty of Peace between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the State of Israel of 26 October, 1994 (hereinafter referred to as the “Treaty of Peace”),
Fully aware of the importance of the ecology of the region, its high environmental sensitivity, and the need to protect the environment and prevent its degradation for the health and well-being of the region’s population,
Recognizing the need for the conservation of natural resources and preservation of biodiversity in the region for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations,
Taking into account the imperative of attaining economic growth and a better standard of living based on sustainable development principles,
Desiring to develop and maintain cooperation in matters relating to environmental protection and preservation and in pollution abatement in general, and specifically in matters that may affect them mutually,
Have agreed as follows:
1. The Parties shall cooperate in the fields of environmental protection and conservation of natural resources on the basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit.
2. They shall take the necessary measures, both jointly and individually, to protect the environment and prevent environmental risks, hazards and nuisances in general, and in particular those that may affect or cause damage to people, natural resources or environmental assets in the region. Article 2
The Parties shall take the necessary measures to cooperate on the development and implementation of the following mechanisms and tools, which are mutually recognized as essential for attaining the aforesaid goals. These measures shall include:
1. Measures for the preparation and presentation of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) relating to development activities that may have a significant or transboundary impact on the environment.
2. Environmental Legislation, and measures to promote, to the extent possible, consistency and harmonization of environmental laws, regulations and standards in accordance with internationally recognized principles and standards.
3. Capacity building means, including:
a) Enhancement of legislative, administrative and judicial principles and enforcement of compliance strategies;
b) Development of improved mechanisms for monitoring environmental performance of regulated activities and facilities.
4. Other capacity building means, such as research and monitoring activities, the development and application of best available technologies and the effective use of economic incentives.
5. Emergency warning and response procedures to events or accidents likely to generate environmental pollution or damage, including transboundary notification, and provisions for coordinated response to such events or accidents that may endanger public health or the environment.
6. Information exchange on research, planning and development activities, policies, environmental practices and environmental impacts of existing facilities, and on legal provisions and environmental enforcement activities which are relevant to the implementation of this Agreement, including improved means of collecting, compiling, analyzing and disseminating environmental quality and pollution-monitoring data.
7. Environmental education programs for the younger population, as well as multi-media programs addressing the general public, aimed at raising awareness.
The Parties shall seek to promote cooperation in the following fields relating to the protection of the environment and natural resources and to nature conservation:
A. Environmental subjects to be addressed:
1. Protection of nature, natural resources and biodiversity, including cooperation in planning and management of adjacent protected areas along the common border, and protection of endangered species and migratory birds.
2. Air quality control, including general standards, criteria and all types of man-made hazardous radiations, fumes and gases.
3. Marine environment and coastal resources management.
4. Waste management, including hazardous wastes.
5. Pest control including house flies and mosquitoes, and prevention of diseases transferred by pests, such as malaria and leishmaniosis.
6. Abatement and control of pollution, contamination and other man-made hazards to the environment.
7. Desertification: combatting desertification, exchange of information and research knowledge, and the implementation of suitable technologies.
8. Noise: reducing noise pollution through regulations and enforcement based on agreed standards.
B. In accordance with the above, the Parties agree to cooperate in activities and projects in the geographical areas as stipulated in Annex 1 of this Agreement, in accordance with Annex IV, part D of the Treaty of Peace.
The Parties shall work together in order to promote joint environmental development projects along their mutual border, to be further elaborated and incorporated in future schemes for development in this area.
For the implementation of this agreement, and especially in order to advance the purposes set forth in Article 2, the Parties agree upon the following forms of cooperation, which shall include:
1. Meetings to discuss environmental issues and subject matters which are of mutual interest and benefit.
2. Exchange of professional delegations, experts, scholars and scientific research workers in the field of environment.
3. Exchange of timely information and data on a regular basis, including analysis and assessment of environmental impacts.
4. Promotion of joint scientific and technical research and development projects in the field of environment.
5. Organization of conferences, exhibitions, symposia and lectures to discuss the subjects mentioned in this Agreement.
6. Activities to support international environmental projects to help solve global and regional environmental problems and to create an atmosphere of cooperation.
7. Any other forms of cooperation deemed necessary by the Parties to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement.
1. Unless otherwise agreed, each Party shall provide adequate resources to carry out of its own responsibilities under this Agreement. It is expressly understood that the ability of each Party to carry out long-term activities is subject to the availability of appropriate funds, and that both sides will seek to ensure funding for projects under this Agreement.
2. The Parties shall strive to attract funds for financing joint research and development projects and other cooperative projects in the field of the environment.
The Parties may call upon government agencies, academic institutions and private economic enterprises to take part in the cooperative activities under this Agreement.
1. By mutual agreement, both Parties may pass on the results of their cooperation to third parties.
2. In exchanging information and disseminating it to third parties, both Parties shall take into account existing legal provisions, the rights of third parties and international obligations.
3. The use of informationeither worthy of protection or protectedshall require specific consent.
1. The Ministry of the Environment of the State of Israel and the Ministry of Municipalities, Rural Affairs and Environment of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are the Ministries in charge of the implementation of this Agreement.
2. Each of the above mentioned Ministries shall nominate a coordinator to carry out overall responsibility for cooperation and activities under this Agreement.
1. In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of this Agreement, the Parties shall establish a Joint Committee on Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Conservation, the tasks of which shall be:
a) To draw up work programs and define activities under this Agreement concerning specific areas of cooperation;
b) To review the current and future activities under this Agreement and to assess the state and results of the cooperation.
2. The Committee shall meet bimonthly. The meetings of the Committee shall be held in Jordan and in Israel, alternately.
This Agreement shall be considered an interim Agreement for a period of one year, from the date set forth in the procedures described in Article 12 of this Agreement, pending the conclusion of a final Agreement in accordance with Article 18 and Annex IV of the Treaty of Peace. Article 12
This Agreement is subject to approval or ratification in accordance with the national legislation and procedures of each Party and shall enter into force not later than thirty (30) days from the day of signature on the date of the latter of the Diplomatic Notes confirming such approval or ratification.
Done at Aqaba, this 7 day of September 1995, which corresponds to the 12 day of Elul, 5755, and 12th al Rubinz 1415 H, in the Arabic, Hebrew and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergency of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.”