Elisa Mason, Information Manager for the Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford, in a July 15, 2000 essay titled "Guide to International Refugee Law Resources on the Web," wrote the following regarding Refugee Rights and International Law:
"Two principal conventions govern international refugee law matters: the 1951 Convention1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, and its 1967 Protocol. The Convention sets out the rights of refugees and the standards for their treatment in the countries that receive them. It defines 'refugee' in Article 1A(2) as,
[A]ny person who…owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his [or her] nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself [or herself] of the protection of that country.
Because the definition requires that a person be outside his or her country, it effectively excludes internally displaced persons from receiving international protection. Moreover, because it focuses on individualized persecution, it does not recognize situations of generalized violence (such as wars), natural disasters, and large-scale development projects as legitimate causes of flight.
The Protocol was drafted to remove the geographic and time limitations of the earlier instrument, the incorporation of which reflected the post-World War 2 context in which the Convention was framed. Otherwise, it retains the same language as that used in the Convention.
It is important to note that neither instrument makes any direct reference to the concept of asylum; lawful admission, and the conditions under which it is granted, remains the discretion of States. Instead, the Convention provides for the principle of non-refoulement, found in Article 33, which stipulates 'No Contracting State shall expel or return ('refouler') a refugee in any manner whatsoever to…territories where his (or her) life or freedom would be threatened.'"